Engineering Sciences

Professor Zhiming Kuang, Director of Undergraduate Studies

Engineering innovation has long played a critical role in enhancing social progress and bringing about an improved quality of life. Within the past 50 years, the pace and impact of innovation have increased dramatically, facilitating modern health, energy, transportation, communications, and computational infrastructures that knit together the countries of the world. At the same time, engineering innovation has enabled dramatic advances in basic science. Imaging and manufacturing structures at the nanoscales, near-lossless transmission of information, and unprecedented levels of computational power have led to fantastic new discoveries. These types of technologies, for instance, have allowed us to decode the genome, understand the formation of galaxies, and make correlations between social networks and underlying human psychology. In the 21st century, rapid and efficient access to the new innovations, necessary to tackle today's myriad challenges, has become even more imperative. Equally important is the need to educate both those who will be future engineering innovators and those who will use those innovations, deploy them, and make critical legal and political decisions about them.

Engineering has evolved over the years to not only dive deeply into specific fields, but also to seek out solutions to real-world problems by combining concepts from a broad range of scientific inquiries and innovations. For example, robotics is a highly interdisciplinary field that straddles multiple traditional engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, and materials engineering and computer science. While roboticists have traditionally been trained in specific engineering disciplines, next generation roboticists must tackle large complex systems comprising multiple parts that span myriad disciplines—from the mechanical underpinnings of the physical device, to electronic control, materials properties, and high-level algorithms—all of which must work in concert to achieve broad-level objectives while adhering to numerous constraints. Alternative energy is another growing and immensely important field that requires integration of solutions across a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Topics range from understanding the inherent properties of materials and devices that harness the sun's rays to thinking about challenges associated with large-scale production and distribution of electricity, and addressing both the societal and environmental impacts of new technologies. The Engineering Sciences concentration is ideally positioned to provide students with both the breadth and depth of study needed to excel in these and other exciting integrative areas of engineering within the liberal arts setting of Harvard.

Harvard offers two degrees in Engineering Sciences: the Bachelor of Arts (AB) and the Bachelor of Science (SB). The degree requirements differ for each of these programs: the AB program requires between 14 and 16 courses (56-64 credits) and the SB program requires 20 courses (80 credits). Students in the Engineering Sciences AB program specialize in one of four engineering tracks: biomedical sciences and engineering, electrical and computer engineering, engineering physics, or mechanical and materials science and engineering. Students interested in an AB degree may also consider the Biomedical Engineering concentration and the Environmental Science and Engineering concentration, which are also listed in this publication. Students pursuing the SB degree in the Engineering Sciences concentration typically specialize in one of two tracks: bioengineering or environmental science and engineering. Students interested in an SB degree specializing in Electrical Engineering or Mechanical Engineering should refer directly to those concentrations, which are also listed in this publication. Students may also apply to a cross-disciplinary track within the Engineering Sciences SB program, which provides the opportunity to learn between or across traditional engineering areas.

The SB degree program requires a minimum of 20 courses (80 credits). The curriculum is structured with advanced courses building on the knowledge acquired in math, science, and introductory engineering science courses. Concentrators are encouraged to complete the common prerequisite course sequence in their first two years at Harvard. This includes Math (through 1a and 1b; plus 21a and 21b, 23a and 23b, or Applied Mathematics 21a and 21b), Physics (through Applied Physics 50a and 50b, Physical Sciences 12a and 12b, or Physics 15a and 15b), and Computer Science 50. Students are cautioned that it is more important to derive a solid understanding of these basic subjects than to complete them quickly without thorough knowledge; this material is extensively used in many subsequent courses. If in doubt, it may be wise to enroll in the Math 1 sequence rather than proceed to Math 21a or 23a with marginal preparation.

The SB and AB degree programs in Engineering Sciences share many course requirements, and there is some flexibility in moving between these programs. To get an early sample of engineering coursework, entering students are invited to enroll in Environmental Science and Engineering 6 (Environmental Science and Engineering), Engineering Sciences 50 (Electrical Engineering), Engineering Sciences 51 (Mechanical Engineering), and Engineering Sciences 53 (Biomedical Engineering). These introductory courses have minimal prerequisites, and have been very popular with prospective engineering concentrators. Engineering Sciences 50 and 51 have extensive hands-on laboratory sections; and Environmental Science and Engineering 6 and Engineering Sciences 50 satisfy requirements for the Program in General Education.

The Engineering Sciences program seeks to educate future leaders that have the technical background necessary to develop and critically evaluate the next wave of engineering innovations; to apply these innovations to important global and local problems; and to make informed decisions about them in a societal context.

Upon graduation, students in the Engineering Sciences AB concentration should demonstrate the following student outcomes:

  • Quantitative problem solving skills based in the fundamentals of mathematics, basic sciences, engineering sciences, and engineering design.
  • The ability to apply engineering principles to problems in a range of fields and with important societal, economic, and environmental impacts.
  • The ability to communicate technical information clearly and efficiently through written, visual, or oral presentations.

Upon graduation, students in the Engineering Sciences SB concentration should demonstrate the following student outcomes:

  1. An ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles of engineering, science, and mathematics.
  2. An ability to apply engineering design to produce solutions that meet specified needs with consideration of public health, safety, and welfare, as well as global, cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors.
  3. An ability to communicate effectively with a range of audiences.
  4. An ability to recognize ethical and professional responsibilities in engineering situations and make informed judgements, which must consider the impact of engineering solutions in global, economic, environmental, and societal contexts.
  5. An ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a collaborative and inclusive environmental, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives.
  6. An ability to develop and conduct appropriate experimentation, analyze and interpret data, and use engineering judgement to draw conclusions.
  7. An ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies.

 

OPTIONS
Bachelor of Arts in Engineering Sciences

  • Biomedical Sciences and Engineering
  • Electrical and Computer Engineering
  • Engineering Physics
  • Mechanical and Materials Science and Engineering

Bachelor of Science in Engineering Sciences

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Science and Engineering
  • Cross-disciplinary

REQUIREMENTS
Bachelor of Arts (AB) in Engineering Sciences: 14-16 courses (56-64 credits)

  1. Required courses for all tracks:
    1. Mathematics (four courses): Mathematics 1a and 1b; Applied Mathematics 21a and 21b, Mathematics 21a and 21b, Mathematics 23a and 23b, or higher levels.
    2. Physics (two courses): Applied Physics 50a, Physical Sciences 12a, or Physics 15a or 16; and Applied Physics 50b, Physical Sciences 12b, or Physics 15b. Appropriate advanced-level physics courses may also fulfill this requirement (please consult with SEAS advisers).
    3. Computer Science (one course): Computer Science 50, 51, or 61.
  2. Tracks:
    1. Biomedical Sciences and Engineering – Mechanical Subtrack, Electrical Subtrack, and Chemical and Materials Subtrack:
      1. Required for all Subtracks (three courses):
        1. Engineering Sciences 53 and Biomedical Engineering 110
        2. Life Sciences 1a
  3. Required for Mechanical Subtrack (four courses):
    1. Engineering Sciences 120, 123, and 181
    2. Either Engineering Sciences 54 or 153
  4. Required for Electrical Subtrack (four courses):
    1. Engineering Sciences 150
    2. Circuits: Select Engineering Sciences 54 or 153, or both of Engineering Sciences 152 and Computer Science 141
    3. To reach 4 courses for the Subtrack, select 1-2 courses from: Biomedical Engineering 128, 130, Engineering Sciences 157 (formerly 155)
  5. Required for Chemical and Materials Subtrack (four courses):
    1. Engineering Sciences 123, 181, and Biomedical Engineering 191 (preferred) or Engineering Sciences 190
    2. Physical Sciences 1
  6. Approved Electives (two courses):
    1. Engineering Sciences 51, 91r (one term only), 120, 123, 128, 181,190, 211, 220, 221, 228, 240
    2. Biomedical Engineering 121, 125, 128, 130, 160, 191
    3. Either Applied Mathematics 101 or Engineering Sciences 150
    4. One from Engineering Sciences 54, 153, or 154
    5. Physics 136, 140, 143a, 151, 153
    6. One from Physical Sciences 1, Chemistry 17 or 20
    7. Applied Mathematics 104 or 105
    8. Electrical and Computer Engineering:
      1. Required (five courses):
        1. Engineering Sciences 150, 152, 155, and 156, and Computer Science 141
      2. Approved Electives (four courses):
        1. Engineering Sciences 51, 53, 91r (one term only), 120, 121, 123, 159, 173, 175, 177, 181, 183, 190
        2. Computer Science 51, 141, 143, 144r, 146, 148, 175
        3. Applied Mathematics 104, 105, 108
        4. Applied Physics 195
        5. Chemistry 160
        6. Physics 143a, 153
    9. Engineering Physics – Materials, Optoelectronics, and Photonics Subtrack and Earth and Planetary Physics Subtrack:
      1. Required for all Subtracks (four courses):
        1. One from Applied Mathematics 104, 105, 108, Engineering Sciences 111
        2. Engineering Sciences 190
        3. Either Engineering Sciences 181 or Physics 181
        4. Either Physics 143a or Chemistry 160
      2. Required for Materials, Optoelectronics, and Photonics Subtrack (three courses):
        1. Engineering Sciences 173 and 177
        2. Either Applied Physics 195 or Engineering Sciences 120
      3. Required for Earth and Planetary Physics Subtrack (three courses)
        1. One from Earth and Planetary Sciences 121, Astronomy 110, 189
        2. One from Engineering Sciences 120, Earth and Planetary Sciences 161, 166, 171
        3. One from Engineering Sciences 123, Environmental Science and Engineering 131, 132, 162
      4. Approved Electives (two courses):
        1. Physics 140, 153, 175
        2. Earth and Planetary Sciences 161, 166, 171
        3. Astronomy 110, 189
        4. Applied Physics 195
        5. Applied Mathematics 104, 105, 108, 120
        6. Environmental Science and Engineering 131, 132, 162
        7. Engineering Sciences 51, 53, 91r (one term only), 111, 115, 120, 123, 125, 128, 153, 173, 175, 177
    10. Mechanical and Materials Science and Engineering
      1. Required (seven courses):
        1. Engineering Sciences 120, 123, 125, 181, and 190
        2. One from Applied Mathematics 104, 105, 120, Engineering Sciences 111
        3. One from Engineering Sciences 54 or 153, or both of Engineering Sciences 152 and Computer Science 141 (If both ES 152 and CS 141 are taken, the second course can count as an elective below.
      2. Approved Electives (two courses):
        1. Biomedical Engineering 110
        2. Computer Science 141
        3. Engineering Sciences 51, 53, 54, 91r (one term only), 96, 128, 151, 152, 156, 159, 173, 175, 177
        4. Environmental Science & Engineering 131, 132, 162
        5. Applied Physics 195
        6. Chemistry 160
        7. Physics 143a
  7. Sophomore Forum: Sophomore year. Non-credit. Spring term.
  8. General Examination: None.
  9. Thesis: Required for recommendations of high honors and highest honors, and for joint concentrators.
  10. Other information:
    1. Advanced Placement credit in Math 1a or 1b can be included in satisfying the requirement of 16 courses, thus potentially reducing the number of required courses to 14 or 15. Credit for additional courses such as Math 21a or 21b does not further reduce the number of required courses. Moreover, in cases when a course can satisfy both an elective and a requirement of a track, the total number of courses is not reduced. In these cases, additional electives must be taken.
    2. By prior approval, other advanced undergraduate or graduate courses, as well as courses at MIT, can be used to satisfy general requirements and track requirements and electives. Electives alternative to those listed in the tracks may be counted for credit upon prior petition and approval.
    3. Engineering Sciences 50, 51, and 53, Environmental Science and Engineering 6: No more than two of these courses may count toward concentration credit.  Engineering Sciences 50, and 53, and Environmental Science and Engineering 6 can only count as an engineering elective when taken during the freshman or sophomore year.
    4. Only one of ES 91r (4 credits) or ES 91hfr (4 credits) can count as an approved elective in the degree requirements.
    5. Pass/Fail or Sat/Unsat: None of the courses used to satisfy concentration requirements may be taken Pass/Fail or Sat/Unsat.
    6. Plan of Study: Concentrators are required to file an approved departmental Plan of Study and to keep their plan up to date in subsequent years. Plan of Study forms may be obtained from the Office of Academic Programs (Pierce Hall 110) or from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) website.
    7. Joint concentrations: The Engineering Sciences AB program participates in joint concentrations (though the Engineering Sciences SB program does not participate in joint concentrations). The requirements for joint concentrators are the same as for sole concentrators; in addition, a joint concentrator is required to write an interdisciplinary thesis that combines the two fields. This thesis is required regardless of whether Engineering Sciences AB is the primary or allied concentration.
    8. Any exceptions to these policies must be approved via written petition.

Bachelor of Science (SB) in Engineering Sciences: 20 courses (80 credits)

Prospective concentrators are encouraged to make early contact with concentration representatives. Students wishing to enter the concentration must obtain the appropriate Engineering Sciences SB plan of study and related instructions from the Office of Academic Programs  (Pierce Hall 110) or online at http://www.seas.harvard.edu/academics/undergraduate and review materials before meeting with an Assistant/Associate Director or the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Students should be aware that the Engineering Sciences SB degree is more demanding than typical AB degrees, requiring 20 courses (80 credits).

Students typically follow specific guidelines provided for one of two tracks: Bioengineering or Environmental Science and Engineering. Students interested in an SB degree specializing in Electrical Engineering or Mechanical Engineering should refer directly to those concentrations. Students may also apply to a cross-disciplinary track in their junior or senior years, which provides the opportunity to learn between or across traditional engineering areas.

In addition to the courses listed specifically below, other relevant and/or advanced courses may be approved by petition in the context of a particular plan of study. A petition must propound in writing a coherent and persuasive argument for the intellectual merit of the proposal in question.

  1. Required courses for all tracks:
    1. Mathematics/Probability and Statistics/Applied Mathematics (four courses):
      1. Mathematics 1a and b; and Applied Mathematics 21a and 21b, Mathematics 21a and 21b, or Mathematics 23a and 23b. (Note: Students who start in Mathematics 1a will not be required to satisfy either the probability and statistics requirement or the applied math requirement. Students who start in Mathematics 1b must take a course that satisfies the probability and statistics requirement. Students who start in Mathematics 21a, 23a, or Applied Mathematics 21a must complete the courses in both probability and statistics and applied mathematics.)
      2. Probability and Statistics (one course): At least one of Applied Mathematics 101, Engineering Sciences 150, or Statistics 110 (if starting in Mathematics 1b, 21a or 23a, or Applied Mathematics 21a). Please note that ES 150 is preferred for students pursuing the Electrical Subtrack of the Bioengineering Track.
      3. Applied Mathematics (one course): At least one of Applied Mathematics 104, 105, 106, or 107 (if starting in Mathematics 21a or 23a or Applied Mathematics 21a).
    2. Physics (two courses): Applied Physics 50a, Physical Sciences 12a, Physics 15a or 16; Applied Physics 50b, Physical Sciences 12b, or Physics 15b. Appropriate advanced-level physics courses may also fulfill this requirement (please consult with SEAS advisers).
    3. Computer Science (one course): Computer Science 50, 51, or 61.
    4. Engineering design (two courses): Engineering Sciences 96 (or 227 for Bioengineering track) and Engineering Sciences 100hf (see item 4 below). Engineering Sciences 96 (or 227 for Bioengineering track) must in taken in junior year, prior to ES 100hf.
  2. Tracks
    1. Bioengineering – Mechanical Subtrack, Electrical Subtrack, and Chemical and Materials Subtrack
      1. Required for all Subtracks (five courses)
        1. Engineering Sciences 53, Biomedical Engineering 110
        2. Engineering Electives (three courses): Three courses from the list in item 7 (any area), with at least two at the 100 or 200 level.
      2. Required for Mechanical Subtrack
        1. Biology and/or Chemistry (two courses): Two of the following: Life Sciences 1a or Life and Physical Sciences A, Life Sciences 1b, Physical Sciences 1, Physical Sciences 10, Physical Sciences 11, and, by approval, other relevant introductory courses in biology or chemistry (please consult with SEAS advisers).
        2. Mechanical core (four courses): Engineering Sciences 120, 123, 181, and Engineering Sciences 190 or Biomedical Engineering 191 (preferred).
      3. Required for Electrical Subtrack
        1. Biology and/or Chemistry (two courses): Two of the following: Life Sciences 1a or Life and Physical Sciences A, Life Sciences 1b, Physical Sciences 1, Physical Sciences 10, Physical Sciences 11, and, by approval, other relevant introductory courses in biology or chemistry (please consult with SEAS advisers).
        2. Electrical core (four courses): 
          1. Circuits: Engineering Sciences 54 or 153, or both of Engineering Sciences 152 and Computer Science 141 (If both ES 152 and CS 141 are taken, the second course can count as the Electrical Engineering elective below.)
          2. At least two courses from: Biomedical Engineering 128, 130, Engineering Sciences 157 (formerly 155)
          3. Up to one additional Electrical Engineering elective to reach 4 courses for the Electrical core
        3. Required for Chemical and Materials Subtrack
          1. Biology and/or Chemistry (one course): Life Sciences 1a or Life and Physical Sciences A, Life Sciences 1b, Physical Sciences 1, Physical Sciences 10, Physical Sciences 11, and, by approval, other relevant introductory courses in biology or chemistry (please consult with SEAS advisers).
          2. Organic Chemistry (one course): Chemistry 17 or 20.
          3. Chemical & Materials core (four courses): Engineering Sciences 123, Biomedical Engineering 121 or 125, Engineering Sciences 112 or 181, and Engineering Sciences 190 or Biomedical Engineering 191 (preferred).
    2. Environmental Science and Engineering
      1. Chemistry (two courses): Two from: Physical Sciences 11 (preferred) or Physical Sciences 1; Life Sciences 1a or Life and Physical Sciences A; Physical Sciences 10; Chemistry 17 or 20. 
        Note: Students should be aware that many upper-level courses in the Environmental Science and Engineering track have Physical Sciences 1 or 11 as a prerequisite.
      2. Environmental Science and Engineering core (five courses):
        1. Environmental Science and Engineering 6
        2. Select four from Environmental Science and Engineering 109, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 137, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 169, Engineering Sciences 112, 123
        3. Engineering breadth (three courses): One upper-level (>100) course from each of the following depth areas (see item 7 below):
          1. Mechanics and Materials
          2. Electrical
          3. Engineering Physics and Chemistry
        4. Engineering electives (one course): At least one course from the list in item 7 (any area).
      3. Cross-disciplinary
        1. Biology and/or Chemistry (two courses): Two of the following: Life Sciences 1a or Life and Physical Sciences A; Life Sciences 1b, Physical Sciences 1 or 11; Physical Sciences 10; and, by approval, other relevant introductory courses in biology or chemistry (please consult with SEAS advisers).
        2. Engineering depth (three courses):  At least three courses from one area of engineering sciences (see item 7 below).
        3. Engineering breadth (three courses): At least three courses from three other areas of engineering sciences (see item 7 below).
        4. Engineering electives (three courses): At least three courses in engineering sciences or relevant related fields with engineering topics (see items 7 below),
  3. Sophomore Forum: Sophomore year. Non-credit. Spring term
  4. Tutorial: Required. Engineering Sciences 100hf.
  5. Thesis: Required. An individual engineering design project is an essential element of every SB program and is undertaken during the senior year as part of Engineering Sciences 100hf. Faculty-supervised reading and research is an important aspect of this requirement.
  6. General Examination: None.
  7. Engineering Sciences courses organized by area:
    1. Biomedical: Engineering Sciences 53, 211, 221, 227, 228, Biomedical Engineering 110, 121, 125, 128, 130, 160, 191
    2. Computer: Computer Science 51, 61, 141, 143, 146, 148, 175
    3. Electrical: Engineering Sciences 50, 54, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157 (formerly 155), 158, 159, 173, 175, 177, Computer Science 141, 146, 148
    4. Engineering Physics and Chemistry: Engineering Sciences 112, 135, 173, 181, 190
    5. Environmental: Environmental Science and Engineering 6, 109, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 137, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 169, Engineering Sciences 112, 123
    6. Mechanics and Materials: Engineering Sciences 51, 120, 123, 125, 128, 181, 183, 190
  8. Note: Students entering Harvard with secondary school preparation that places them beyond the level of any of the required courses listed above may substitute appropriate advanced level courses. However, ABET accreditation requires that all students complete at least 8 courses in math and science and 12 courses in engineering topics. Students who start in Math Ma will need to take 21 courses in order to fulfill the degree requirements. Given the number and complexity of the requirements, students interested in pursuing engineering should consult with the Director or Assistant/Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies about their plans of study as early as possible.
  9. Other Information:
    1. Engineering Sciences 50, 51, and 53, Environmental Science and Engineering 6: No more than two of these courses may count towards concentration credit. Engineering Sciences 50, 53, and Environmental Science and Engineering 6 can only count as an engineering elective when taken during the freshman or sophomore year.
    2. Only one of ES 91r (4 credits) or ES 91hfr (4 credits) can count as an approved elective in the degree requirements.
    3. Pass/Fail or Sat/Unsat: None of the courses used to satisfy the concentration requirements may be taken Pass/Fail or Sat/Unsat.
    4. Plan of Study: Students entering the concentration must file an Engineering Sciences SB plan of study and present an intellectually coherent plan in consultation with an Assistant/Associate Director or the Director of Undergraduate Studies. Subsequent modifications to the plan must be reviewed by a relevant Assistant/Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies.
    5. Cross-Disciplinary Track Requirements: Admission to the cross-disciplinary track is by application. To apply to the track, students must have at least a 3.5 College grade point average at the time of application. Applications can be submitted no earlier than the end of sophomore year, and no later than the fifth Monday of the student's seventh semester.
    6. Additional Terms: Concentrators who wish to remain beyond the end of the second term of their senior year to complete the SB requirements must be approved to do so by the Undergraduate Engineering Committee. A written petition is required and should always be submitted as early as possible and under discussion with the Assistant/Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies or Director of Undergraduate Studies. Petitions can be submitted no later than January 15 between the student’s fifth and sixth terms (i.e., middle of junior year), or August 15 between the student’s fifth and sixth terms if the student’s fifth term is the spring. Under no circumstances will the Committee grant a student permission for more than two additional terms. Petitions are only granted in exceptional cases, and only to meet specific SB degree requirements. More information can be found on the SEAS website.
    7. Joint Concentrations. The Engineering Sciences SB program does not participate in joint concentrations.
    8. Any exceptions to these policies must be approved via written petition.

ADVISING

Students interested in concentrating in Engineering Sciences should discuss their plans with the Director of Undergraduate Studies, the Assistant/Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies, or the Undergraduate Academic Programs Manager. Each undergraduate who elects to concentrate in Engineering Sciences is assigned a faculty adviser depending on the student's track. The faculty adviser might also be a member of the Undergraduate Engineering Committee, whose members have the responsibility for reviewing departmental Plans of Study. If students do not request a change in adviser, they have the same adviser until they graduate. Each student is reassigned to another faculty member while the original faculty adviser is on leave. It is expected that students will discuss their Plans of Study and progress with their Director of Undergraduate Studies or Assistant/Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies at the beginning of each term. Students may also seek advice from their faculty adviser, the Director of Undergraduate Studies, the Assistant/Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies, or the Academic Programs Manager at any time.

HOW TO FIND OUT MORE

Further information is available from the Director of Undergraduate Studies in Engineering Sciences, Prof. TBD (es-dus@seas.harvard.edu) or the relevant Assistant/Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies: for Mechanical and Materials Science and Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dr. Christopher Lombardo (lombardo@seas.harvard.edu); for Bioengineering, Dr. Linsey Moyer (lmoyer@seas.harvard.edu); for Environmental Science and Engineering, Dr. Patrick Ulrich (pulrich@seas.harvard.edu). Students can also contact the SEAS Undergraduate Academic Programs Manager, Kathy Lovell (klovell@seas.harvard.edu).

ENROLLMENT STATISTICS
Number of Concentrators as of December

  • Concentrators 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
    Engineering Sciences 110 145 148 165 147 111 98 99 112 107
    Engineering Sciences + another field 2 1 5 4 6 2 4 3 1 1
    Another field + Engineering Sciences 1 1 0 0 0 3 3 5 8 2